Planting eggplant in spring often causes wilting and dead plants, mainly caused by the following diseases:
1. Verticillium wilt of eggplant: rarely occurs in the seedling stage, and many plants begin to show symptoms after fruit set, and many develop from bottom to top or from one side to the whole plant. The leaves begin to yellow at the leaf margins and veins, and then develop to one and a half leaves and turn yellow. Later, the diseased leaves turned yellow from yellow to wilting and fell off. In severe cases, all the leaves were only stripped of stems. Vascular bundles become brown in necropsy.
2, eggplant wilt disease: from the seedling stage to the harvest period will be the disease. The leaves of the diseased plants turn yellow and withered from the bottom up, and the symptoms are mostly manifested on the first and second layer branches. Sometimes the same leaves only turn yellow and the other half is healthy as usual. Vascular bundles of diseased stems turn brown, similar to Verticillium wilt.
3, eggplant root rot: Mostly occur after planting, so that plants grow slowly. In the early onset, the leaves are wilting during the day and can be recovered sooner or later. After many days, the leaves turn yellow and dry. The roots or rhizomes of the epidermis are rotted brown and easily peeled off, leaving the xylem exposed.
4. Bacterial wilt of eggplant: Only one or a few leaves of individual branches become pale at the beginning of the disease, showing partial wilting, then spreading to the whole plant and finally turning brown. The disease begins at the base of the stem and then extends to the shoots. Most of the medullary parts of the shoots are ulcerated or hollow. The transverse section of the diseased stems is squeezed by hand. When the humidity is high, there is a small amount of milky white mucous thick.
All of the above are soil-borne diseases, and the following control measures should be taken: (1) Rotation must be implemented. It is advisable that the diseased field should be rotated for 3-4 years with cruciferous vegetables or rice, corn and other grass crops. (2) Fine soil preparation, deep cultivating and sun drying, appropriate amount of lime, high enthalpy, easy drainage after rain, soil is not easy to get wet. (3) Seed disinfection before sowing. The seeds can be soaked in warm water at 55Â°C for 15 minutes or fumigated with formalin. Bao Ning (60% wettable powder) or mulberry seed dressing. (4) Use an artificial substrate to nurse seedlings, or seed bed soil is disinfected with pentachloronitrobenzene (40% powder). It is best to use seedlings or nutritious bags to cultivate disease-free strong seedlings. (5) Early removal of the diseased seedlings is deeply buried or burned, and lime is then applied at the site of the disease to prevent the disease from spreading. (6) Early use of root rot (40% wettable powder) 800-1000 times or carbendazim (50% wettable powder) 500-800 times of root canal verticillium wilt, blight and root rot Blight with Jiadaning or colume ammonia or blue and dry net irrigation roots.
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