Summer is the period of frequent disease occurrence of Chinese herbal medicines. If it is not prevented and controlled in time, it will bring adverse effects to the increase of production and increase of income of the materials. The six kinds of disease symptoms and prevention methods for Chinese herbal medicines in the midsummer are described as follows:
Root rot. This kind of disease often occurs in medicinal materials grown on hot, humid, low-lying plots. It mainly damages the roots, causing some or all of the roots to discolor and rot, and the tissues are damaged. The stems and leaves also droop and dry out because the roots cannot supply moisture. The disease-prone species include Atractylodes macrocephala, Fritillaria, peony, Lily, Rehmannia, Scrophulariaceae, heterophylla, Radix isatidis, Achyranthes bidentata, safflower, and Dangshen. Control methods: (1) implement crop rotation; (2) choose well-drained land for planting; (3) turn dry soil before planting; (4) use 5% limestone to water the root at the beginning of disease, or use 1% ferrous sulfate in the disease disinfection.
Leaf spot. Occurs at high temperatures, poor field ventilation, and weak plant growth. Mainly formed in the leaves of various shapes of the spots, the color is mostly yellow-brown or purple, the latter lesions expand to connect each other into pieces, resulting in leaves dry off, some spots will appear moldy. Varieties susceptible to this disease include white peony, Campanulaceae, Atractylodes macrocephala, chrysanthemum, honeysuckle, peppermint, papaya, alfalfa and yam. Control methods: (1) Rotation; (2) Seed and seedlings were sterilized with 50% carbendazim or 65% zeocin 600 to 1000 times; (3) Sprayed leaves with 1:1:100 Bordeaux mixture at the beginning of the disease. , Every 7 to 10 days, even spray 2 to 3 times.
Blight. The disease is easy to occur in wetlands where under-fertilized manure is applied. The incidence of seedlings is more, and after infection, yellowish-brown lesions appear at the base of the young stems near the soil surface, or the bases all discolor, shrink, and dry, and the upper branches and leaves are dying and falling down. The varieties that are prone to this disease include ginseng, American ginseng, Adenophos, Panax notoginseng, Nepeta, wind-proof, astragalus, chrysanthemum, Eucommia ulmoides and so on. Control methods: (1) Rotation; (2) Reasonable planting density; (3) Spraying with 1000 times solution of TB wettable powder at the beginning of the disease, or spreading on the stem base with the above-mentioned pesticide mixed soil, spreading every 10 days 1 time.
Rust. The disease is prone to occur in rainy, polymycotic seasons, and in areas where the soil is moist and the plants grow soft. Yellow or dark brown spots appeared on stems and leaves at the time of onset, and later lesions bulged, the epidermis was broken, and yellow or brown powder was scattered. The lesions were broken and perforated, and the leaves died. Varieties susceptible to this disease include Panax notoginseng, Yuanhu, Atractylodes macrocephala, Angelica, Angelica, Codonopsis, Radix Astragali, Honeysuckle, White Kidney Beans, and Safflower. Prevention methods: (1) Drain and drainage in time in the rainy season to prevent the accumulation of water in the field; (2) Spray 97% of enemy rust sodium 400 times or Baume 0.3 degree lime sulfur in the early stage of disease; (3) Remove diseased leaves and concentrate burn .
Smut. Also known as smut, occurs in the high temperature and dry period, stems, leaves, ears can be infected with the disease. After onset, the stems and leaves were bent and deformed to form small nodules. There were white tunica albuginea on the outside and later ruptured and black powder was scattered. If the ear is infected with the disease, no knots are formed. The varieties that are prone to this disease include Yuren, Wang Weiju, Dazhezi, Plantago, and Cassia. Control methods: (1) rotation; (2) seed disinfection with 20% triadimefon or 50% carbendazim soaking; (3) timely removal of the diseased plants and central burning.
Sclerotinia disease. In the wet soil, large temperature difference between day and night is prone to occur. Roots, stems and leaves are soft when the disease occurs, the roots are rotted, and the plants are lodging. When the humidity is high, the diseased part produces a lot of cotton-like white hairs, and later forms black rat-like sclerotia, resulting in plant death. Prone to the disease of the species ginseng, Atractylodes, Fritillaria, Salvia, peony, safflower, Arctium, Asarum and so on. Prevention methods: (1) implement crop rotation; (2) remove the water in the field and reduce the humidity in the field in time after the rain; (3) remove the diseased plant, disinfect it with vegetation ash and lime powder in the diseased hole; (4) use 50 in the early stage of disease. 5% thiophanate 500 times or 50% tetromycin 600 times.
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